Big Brother is watching, always. That was a seminal theme in George Orwell's classic novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Published in London on June 8, 1949, the dystopian world created from Orwell's imagination became a worldwide phenomenon within 12 months. Often referred to as the masterpiece that killed George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four inspired a movie, documentary, stage play and a lexicon that remains to this day. It has given people a way to label encroaching governments bent on controlling every aspect of human life, influencing real-life language and experiences for decades:
An adjective describing a situation, idea or societal condition identified as destructive to the welfare of a free and open society. It denotes an attitude and a brutal policy of draconian control by propaganda, surveillance, misinformation, denial of truth and manipulation of the past, including the "unperson," a person whose past existence is expunged from the public record and memory.
Big Brother is a fictional character and symbol in 1984. He is ostensibly the leader (most likely a symbolic figurehead) of Oceania, a totalitarian state wherein the ruling Party wields total power "for its own sake" over the inhabitants. He is always watching.
There are four government ministries in 1984: The Ministry of Peace concerns itself with war, the Ministry of Truth with lies, the Ministry of Love with torture and the Ministry of Plenty with starvation. Room 101, introduced in the climax of the novel, is the basement torture chamber in the Ministry of Love, in which the Party attempts to subject a prisoner to his or her own worst nightmare, fear or phobia, with the object of breaking down their resistance. Some modern day hotels have refused to call a guest bedroom number 101.
The criminal act of holding unspoken beliefs or doubts that oppose or question the ruling party.
The Thought Police, or secret police in 1984, uncover and punish thoughtcrime. The Thought Police use surveillance and psychological monitoring to find and eliminate members of society who challenge the party's authority and ideology. Orwell based their methods on those used by totalitarian states and ideologies of the 20th century.
Newspeak is the language of Oceania. It is a controlled language, of restricted grammar and limited vocabulary, a linguistic design meant to limit the freedom of thought --- personal identity, self-expression, free will --- that ideologically threatens the régime of Big Brother and the Party.
Doublethink is the act of simultaneously accepting two mutually contradictory beliefs as correct, often in distinct social contexts. In the novel, for someone to even recognize --- let alone mention --- any contradiction within the context of the Party line was akin to blasphemy, and could subject that someone to disciplinary action and to the instant social disapproval of fellow Party Members.